4 Things you should know about Bitcoin



In the past few years, you may have heard about Bitcoin, the digital currency. Bitcoin is a type of cryptocurrency, where the security and encryption implication is essential. Since its discovery in 2008, the price of Bitcoin has gone up sparking a lot of conversation. Even the great investors have debated on the legitimacy and relevance of this new form of currency. The discussions have left us with more thoughts to review. However, those are opinions, and while useful, it is critical to know the facts. Here are four things you should know about Bitcoin.

1. What is Bitcoin?

As discussed earlier, Bitcoin is an encrypted digital currency, which is also known as a cryptocurrency. This currency is a global payment system and is built on the idea of a technology called blockchain. The technology is a virtue ledger that that keeps track of every transaction. No one controls Bitcoin, and the accounting is publicly distributed. In theory, anybody can track the operation and verify its legitimacy. Therefore, Bitcoin is neither a fraud nor a golden nugget. In the analogue world, physical money such as goods and paper money is limited by distance. In the digital world, we eliminate the constraint of distance and speed. However, banks control the rate. The crypto world eliminates both human and institutional constraints.

2. How is Bitcoin Created? 

Bitcoin is created through a mining process. Blockchain depends on a network of exchange that ensures the integrity of the transaction history by achieving consensus. The mining process starts with validating a transaction. Once certified, the exchangers need to race, using trial and error, to solve a mathematical puzzle that requires massive computing resources. The first computer to solve the math issue is rewarded with Bitcoins. Bitcoin mining serves two purposes: the process creates new coins and facilitates the processing of transactions in the network. The protocol of creating the currency is known as Proof of Work (PoW).

3. The value of Bitcoin. 

Only 21 million Bitcoins will ever be built, meaning that the currency is deflationary compared to paper money, which is inflationary. Bitcoin derives its value and security from the fact that you can prove the substantial computing power and electric energy used to solve a mathematical problem. In this process, you are protected against fraud and fake information. While PoW creates Bitcoin, a verifiable network backs and authenticates the currency. Anyone can create their own money, but you need a community to accept it for it to have value. Bitcoin has existed for eight years, and the global community has been transacting with the currency.

4. Where to use Bitcoin. 

You can use Bitcoin for both local and global payments. For example, Bitcoin Prediction market and Exchange is a global betting site that allows users to place bets using the currency.  Bitcoin provides a faster, more efficient and hassle-free way to exchange money. The cryptocurrency allows money transfers, peer-to-peer, without an intermediary like a bank. You can transfer Bitcoin at a faster rate at a lower fee compared to digital money.

Bitcoin was the first successful cryptocurrency on the blockchain that gave the world universal, virtual, and borderless money. Bitcoin defined the future of money since it is shaping the future of economies and transactions.  

How to recover deleted data in Windows, Android and mac



Our devices be it our PC or our smartphone, it stores a lot of important data . The only reason why our smartphone storage is going on increasing is that the amount of data that an user likes to store or number of apps that an user likes to use have increased. According to few online leaks iphone 8 is going to have 512 GB of storage. Yes you heard it right.

Now coming back to the topic, most of the time we accidentally delete our file and later realize how important that file was for us. Or sometime due to disk failure in PC or some software updates in andriod device we end up loosing our files. Even though Windows may not be able to see a file you accidentally deleted , it’s usually possible that the data could still be there and able to be retrieved.

In this post we will see how we can recover permanently deleted files from Windows, Amc and android.

Recover permanently deleted files in Windows 

Recuva Software

It can recover files that have been deleted accidentally. It supports image, audio, documents files and even emails. It scans the hard drive, find the file and copy it to flash media.


  • Download the free version of Recuva Software.
  • After finishing the installation of Recuva software, a quick launch file displays on the desktop. Click on that icon to Run and start the file.
  • You will get different file types like Music files, Documents, Video files, Images, all files, etc.
  • You can choose a specific file or Select ‘All Files’ so that you can recover any type of deleted file.


Recover permanently deleted files in Mac 

Recoverying deleted files in MAc is as easy as recovering in windows. For mac use this mac data recovery EaseUS Data Recovery Wizard for Mac

EaseUS free data recovery software recovers deleted, formatted and even inaccessible files for Mac


  • Restore lost or deleted document, photo, video, audio, email and other types of files
  • Save files from Mac notebook, Mac desktop, hard drive, SSD, USB drive, memory card, SD card, CF card, digital camera, iPod, MP3/MP4 player, etc.




Recover permanently deleted files in Android

These days we store most of our important files such as photos, documents etc in our phone so if by mistake we loose these data we might have to face a lot of problems.


If you delete the data accidentally, the first thing you need to do is to stop using your device and try to recover lost files from Android as soon as possible, or it may have a higher risk to be overwritten and you are not able to get the lost data back anymore.

There are various tools available for data recovery in android you can use any one of them.

The Android Photo Recovery program could assist you to recover not only photos and videos, but also SMS text messages, contacts, call history and more from Android phone or tablet.



  • Install the program on your computer and run it, you will be asked to connect your Android device to PC via USB.
  • After connecting your Android to the computer, now you should enable USB debugging
  • Start Scanning Your Android for Deleted Files
  • Then click on the green button "Start" to analyze your Android data.


When you see the window below, it is time for you moving to your Android device again, tap on the "Allow" icon, then turn back to the computer and click on the "Start" button to continue.

And then you can recover your deleted files.


Even though you won't be able to recover all your files but you can recover most of the files. I hope it helps you. Do let me know if you have any doubt



Programming languages that you should learn to be a Hacker



I often get this question. Many people ask me what are the programming languages that are needed to be a hacker. Well, to be a hacker you should know many programming languages and skills since the various applications and websites which you’ll exploit are programmed in different programming languages.

A hacker is a person who finds the vulnerabilities in a computer program or a computer network and then exploits them by using one of these programming languages to write an exploit that addresses a particular vulnerability

Here follow three hacking domains and the languages you must learn to master them.

1. Web Hacking :


Web hacking is one of the most popular domains in the hacking world. To do web hacking you need to understand the languages that are used to code a website like; JavaScript, HTML, PHP & MySQL.

The majority of websites are built by using these languages. 

So for this domain you’ll need to learn:

    HTML.
    JavaScript
    PHP
    SQL

2. Operating Systems Hacking & Exploits Writing :


An exploit is a piece of software code written to take advantage of bugs (exploiting a vulnerability); it’s an application or software.

Exploits consist of a payload and a piece of code to inject the payload into a vulnerable application. The main purpose is to get access to the system in order to control it.

So for this domain you’ll need to learn:

    C.
    C++.
    Python.
    Perl.
    Ruby.

3. Reverse Engineering :-


Reverse engineering is taking apart an object to see how it works in order to duplicate or enhance the object. The practice, taken from older industries, is now frequently used on computer hardware and software.

Software reverse engineering (as black-hat hackers and crackers do) involves reversing a program’s machine code back into the source code that it was written in using programming language statements.

For this domain you need to learn:
    C.
    C++.
    C#.
    VB.
    Python.
    Perl.
    Ruby.
    JavaScript.
    PHP.
    Java.
    Delphi.
    ObjectiveC.
    ErLang.
    Go Lang.
    SQL

 So these are the programming languages that are used by hackers for various purposes. If you are beginners then you should first start with Web Hacking as it is easy to start with and you get a good platform to try out your skills.

Saving Google Hangout Calls on a PC with Movavi Screen Capture



Ever since Google consolidated their various messaging services and into a single platform, it has definitely proven to be a hit. Today Google Hangout boasts the ability to communicate via instant messaging, SMS, or even VoIP and video calls. Because it is so versatile, you will have the choice of being able to place calls or send messages in exactly the way that you prefer.

The only problem with Google Hangout is that any calls that you place won’t be saved. For casual conversations that may not be an issue, but if you’re conducting business calls, interviews, or important discussions then it often helps to have some record of them.

If you want to record Google Hangout sessions all you need is a screen recorder such as Movavi Screen Capture. It will enable you to record your screen, so you can capture the interview and save it on your PC as a video. To pull that off, all you need to do are follow these steps:

  1. Launch Movavi Screen Capture.
  2. Click and drag the mouse cursor to draw a frame encompassing the Google Hangout call that you want to record.
  3. Make sure both the ‘System Audio’ and ‘Microphone’ icons are highlighted and click on them once if not, so that both incoming and outgoing audio will be recorded.
  4. Click ‘REC’ as the call is about to begin to start recording after a 5 second delay.
  5. Click ‘Stop’ when the call is done, then ‘Save as’ to save it.


Make no mistake, Movavi Screen Capture will give you full control over all the recording parameters and let you set the frame rate, choose to capture keyboard and mouse actions, or even schedule the recording itself to automatically start and stop at a particular time or after a certain duration. As you save your video you will even notice a number of built-in presets that will let you optimize your video for various devices and platform.

Before saving your video, Movavi Screen Capture will let you trim out any segments that aren’t necessary, which may be helpful to get rid of footage that was inadvertently recorded at the start or end of the call. All you need to do is position the marker at the appropriate point then use the ‘scissors’ icon to split the video, then select the segment you want to remove and click the ‘trash can’ icon.

All said and done Movavi Screen Capture should let you easily record calls from Google Hangout. By doing so, you can ensure that you can keep track of your calls and save important ones for future reference.

NoobSecToolkit V3 – A Security Students Playground



It is important to learn how to do things manually but tools saves our time. NoobSecToolkit is a Python Based Tool kit that brings together powerful security and anonymity tools and scripts with predefined security configurations and modifications. Making it very simple for students to get started with offensive security!


This third release of the Toolkit comes included with the following options:

Toolkit Options:


  • (sqli)SQL Injector
  • (vulscan) Vulnerability Scanner
  • (dinfo) Gather Basic Domain Info
  • (apf) Admin Page Finder
  • (discover) Information Harvester
  • (hashtype) Identify Hash Type
  • (hexconv) Hex encoder and decoder!
  • (converters) Web Converters
  • (dping) DOS/Ping Target For 1,000 Seconds
  • (stegattack) Steghide Dictionary Attacker
  • (steghide) Install, Learn and Use Steghide
  • (uihanalysis) Intrusion Analysis (URL,IP,HASH)
  • *Options For Deploying an SSH Backdoor (COMING SOON)
  • (osint) aids in the process of information gathering
  • (toolbox) Extra Set of Tools
This tool kit also have various Security options.

Security Options:


  • (macspoof) Spoof Mac Address
  • (itor) install Tor
  • (stor) Start Tor
  • (tors) Check Tor Status
  • (vpn) VPN Launcher (COMING SOON)
  • (encdns) Encrypt DNS
  • (quit) – (home) – (clear)-(update)






The Kit  Features scripts for all sorts of tasks including:
  • Vulnerability Scanner
  • Sql Injector
  • Domain Info
  • DNS Encryption
  • Admin Page Finder
  • VPN Downloader (Provider is DOWN) Tor Installer
  •  Mac Address Spoofing

 Install Instructions

The installation process is very easy and straight forward. You need to do the following to install it.

(1) CTRL + ALT + T (Open Terminal)
(2) git clone https://github.com/krintoxi/NoobSec-Toolkit.git
(3) cd NoobSecToolkit/NoobSec-Toolkit/
(4) python NSToolkit.py

9 Coolest Hidden Firefox Settings You Should Know




Firefox is highly attractive and easily customizable browser. It provides you excellent security and privacy. It also offers plenty of settings that provide you most beautiful customized experience. You must be aware of all the general settings that you can simply access in the settings menu. But, there are also many advanced settings which you can locate on specific web pages which use the “about” protocol. Here is a list of 9 advanced hidden Firefox settings that will be very useful to you

1.    Perform DNS Lookup

In-house DNS lookup – finding the IP address of a domain – can easily be performed in Firefox. You have to simply type “about: networking” in the URL bar and then press enter. The next page will appear on your screen. On this page, there will be a sidebar menu. The last option of the sidebar menu will be “DNS lookup”; click this option. There would appear a search bar and you need to enter Domain name and then press resolve; all the IP addresses will appear on the screen.



2.    Block Auto-Refresh

There are many addresses that come with Refresh HTTP headers that keep on refreshing the pages at regular intervals. If you want to stop pages being refreshed automatically, you can go to “about: prefrences#advanced”. Here you will see the main tab “General” and in its subcategory, that is “Accessibility”, check the box “warn me when websites try to redirect or reload the page”.



3.    Search as You Type

Sometimes people have some vague idea of what they are searching so in that case they certainly need some suggestions and threads. In Firefox you can press “Ctrl+F” which will open an in-page search box, and it will help you search a thread.

If you are tired of pressing key combos all the time and want your search engine to start searching as you start typing, all you have to do is go to address “about: prefrences#advanced” and access the subcategory “Accessibility” in the “General” menu. Here, check the box “search for text when I start typing”. From now onwards, whenever you will type, the Firefox will keep on searching automatically.

4.    Assigning a Different Function to Backspace Key

If you are afraid that your friend or anybody else who is likely to use your computer will access all your history by pressing Backspace key. You can change the functions of Backspace key, like when assigned, the Backspace key will scroll up the page and by pressing Shift + Backspace, it will scroll down the page. It is also possible that you give Backspace no function at all.

Simply go the address “about: config” and type “browser.backspace_action” in the search menu. The following page will show the default value of the browser setting which is 0. Double-click on it and change it to 1 for scrolling action and 2 for removing all the actions.

5.    Move Around With Cursor Keys

If you want to read a long article or a story online and you want to use the cursor for in-text navigation, you can do it in Firefox. Just go to page “about: preferences#advanced” and go to “Accessibility” option and check “always use the cursor keys to navigate within pages. Apart from default arrow cursor, a blinking text cursor will also appear on the wall which you can control with the help of arrow keys.

6.    Paste on Middle Click

If you remain busy all day long doing work on your computer which involves some copy-pasting on web pages, and you are tired of just clicking again and again to paste, you can get maximum benefit from this feature. If your mouse has a middle button, you can assign it to paste text from your clipboard to the web pages.

Go to page “about: config” and search “middlemouse.paste”. The default value will appear as false; to change it simply double-click on it and change the option from false to true.

7.    Change Default Colors

You can change the background, text, and color of different links in your Firefox browser. Simply go to the address “about:prefrences#content” and then select the “color” option in the main category of “Fonts and Colors”. Here you can choose the color of your own choice.

8.    Filter Awesome Bar Links

Whenever you start typing in the URL bar, Firefox gives you suggestions. These suggestions are based on your current history of webpages. You can filter these suggestions by typing some special characters into the location bar before you start typing the address. Here is a list of these special characters

# – Match page title
@ – Match URL
* – Match only to links in bookmarks
^ – Match only to links in history
+ – Match only to links that are tagged
% – Match only to links that are open currently
9.    Auto-Export Bookmarks in HTML

If you want Firefox to save automatically all the bookmarks in HTML format, making a list of links, then go to address “about: config”, and type “browser.bookmark.autoExportHTML” and then by double clicking change the false value to true.

After resetting your browser, you will find a file named “bookmarks.html” in your profile folder with all the links in it. From now on whenever you exit the browser, your bookmark list will be updated automatically. It is also possible that instead of restarting Firefox, you will have to restart your whole system for the changed effects.

This guest post is written by Lisa Myers, who works at Rebateszone. She is a software engineer by profession.

Should Upgrade to Window 10 ? Feedback from user

 

This post was sponsored by EaseUS.

 

I upgraded my OS (operating system)   from window 8.1 to window 10.  In start I was pleased by its performance as the return of the start menu, adaptive and sleeker. It was more like window 7, moreover the feature no more full screen apps and four-way window snap makes it more interesting. And Cortana was truly helpful because of cross-device functionality but after few days I encountered some problems in this OS. I would like to discuss these problems with you as they are continuously making it difficult for me to use this OS.

Less free storage

 

Windows 10 is a worthy upgrade but it requires a lot of space in your machine. So after doing some research I found one thing that after installing window 10 the previous version of OS is still lingering in the background taking up the space more than required. Your older version of windows doesn’t disappear into the air. This is going by the name of ‘windows.old’.

Privacy

 

As I am not a fan of sharing my things or data  with others.  After doing some digging I found some data sharing defaults in windows 10. So I recommend all users to review this problem. Use the start menu and search for setting app and click privacy in it. When you have opened this you will see in the left hand pane, you will see many areas in which your machine is sharing data. Kindly spend time on this so that you may know in which things/data  you are comfortable sharing with others.

No downgrade 

 

Another problem I faced is no downgrade is available in this OS one month later after upgrade.

Data loss

 

This is the biggest problem you will face in windows 10. If you have important files music/videos stored somewhere in drive C data would be lost. Other data would also be lost from your PC but mainly from C drive.

No system restore

 

Initially the system restore option is not available by default. You could turn this option on but this is a long procedure and it is a time taking one.

Cannot play a DVD

 

It does not come with a app to play DVD on. So to play movies you have to use VLC or other players.

Compatibility

 

Some software and hardware are not compatible with windows 10.


Data recovery software:

 


Now if you are facing the fourth problem discuss above then I have a solution for you. I am going to introduce you the best data recovery software for you from that you can recover your data easily by following three steps. And one more thing this is also memory card recovery software as well. So if you have lost some important pictures, or documents from the memory card then you can get it back through this software.

EaseUS data recovery:

 


EaseUS is the best data recovery software available in the market that helps its user with their data loss problems. Or we can say this is the best memory card recovery software available in the market. It is a solution to your every data loss problem. You only have to follow three steps to get back your amazing pictures back in your SD card. It is the award winning memory card data recovery software. It can easily get your lost data back


Steps:

 

•    Launch the program
•    Scan your device
•    Preview and Recover


Step 1. Connect your SD card with your PC with the help of card reader. After that launch EaseUS Data Recovery Wizard and select the file types you want to recover. Then click the next button to move towards the next phase

Step 2. Select the SD card where loss happens and select the "Scan" option, the software will quickly scan the selected SD card to find all your affected files.

Step 3. After you are done with scan, then you can preview your recovered data so you can select out of them which you wanted to recover.Then, click "Recover" button to get them back once.


 PS : This article is intended as a reference .

Beware, Fake Facebook Apps could serve up malware or steal your personal information



Most of the time we see our friends use various Facebook apps like 'top 5 friends', 'Your crush', 'people who have visited you profile' etc. Sometime these apps are fun and sometime quiet annoying too.

We use these apps just for fun and once we get the result we often forget about it. But have you ever wondered why someone out there spent lots of time create the app ? That too without any profit ? Well there are many profits.

Why These apps are created?

1. To earn money from ads

Whenever we try these apps, we are redirected to their websites which most of the times are filled with multiple ads. This is one of the main reason why these apps are made. These apps developers want users to go to the site so that they earn from the ads that are present in their site.

2. Earn money from affiliate

Also these sites are filled with affiliates as they know the interest of the visitors so they can easily sell target based products and earn from it.Affiliate marketing is the process of earning a commission by promoting other people's (or company's) products. You find a product you like, promote it to others, and earn a piece of the profit for each sale that you make.

3. Steal your personal information


This apps are mainly used to steal personal information. Whenever you try these apps they will ask for authorization which looks something like this.


Now most of the time they ask for little permission which are not actually required and giving them these permission can be very dangerous. For example if an app asks permission to access your inbox, it can be very dangerous as they can read all your messages and can also send messages on your behalf.

4. Spread malware


Once these apps get permissions like 'they can post on your behalf', 'they can comment on your behalf', these apps starts too spam with the help of your account. You might have seen in the comment section of some popular pages which are filled with recharge site links. These comments are actually done by these apps via user's account.

How to protect yourself from these apps?



There are many apps available which promises to do fancy stuffs. Always be careful while giving permissions to such apps. If an app requires permission to access your inbox, albums, phone number, status update, chances are there that its a fake app and they are just collection information about you and will use your account to spam others. Never use 3rd party apps which are not required.

But if you are already affected by any of such apps then follow these steps to recover your account.

 1. Go to your account and click on settings




2. Now click on the apps option present on the left side of the page.


3. Now you will get the list of all apps that you are using. Remove the apps which you are not familiar with.

 
Once you’ve removed the app or game, it should no longer post to your Timeline. If you still see a past story, you can remove it manually.

As an added security measure, you should also change your password and do a quick scan of your computer with a reputable up-to-date anti-virus solution just to make sure the app didn't leave any other baddies on your machine.

Conclusion


Facebook apps are great, they can make most of the work easy for us but many people are using these feature for a wrong purpose so we need to be very careful while using these apps. Also most of the time we use unnecessary apps. If you want to know who are your best friends you don't need any Facebook app to tell you that, do you ? Just go out and talk to your friends you will know it your self. Do you really need to use an app to know who is your crush ? I don't think so. Always use apps which are made by trusted sources.




 


An Introduction to Linux Kali Commands



Kali Linux is a Debian-derived Linux distribution designed for digital forensics and penetration testing. It is maintained and funded by Offensive Security Ltd. It was developed by Mati Aharoni and Devon Kearns of Offensive Security through the rewrite of BackTrack, their previous forensics Linux distribution.

What makes Kali linux a favorite OS for every hacker or pentester is that Kali Linux is preinstalled with numerous penetration-testing programs, including nmap (a port scanner), Wireshark (a packet analyzer), John the Ripper (a password cracker), Aircrack-ng (a software suite for penetration-testing wireless LANs), Burp suite and OWASP ZAP (both web application security scanners). Also Kali Linux can run natively when installed on a computer’s hard disk, can be booted from a live CD or live USB, or it can run within a virtual machine. It is a supported platform of the Metasploit Project’s Metasploit Framework, a tool for developing and executing security exploits.


Knowing commands used in linux can help us get a good hold on the OS. In this article We are going to be looking at some of the basics of Linux kali commands. This is really just to get you started – to get you prepared.

Here are the list of  all Kali Linux Commands ( Most of them are same with all other Linux Distros )




A

apropos Search Help manual pages (man -k)
apt-get Search for and install software packages (Debian)
aptitude Search for and install software packages (Debian)
aspell Spell Checker
awk Find and Replace text, database sort/validate/index

B

basename Strip directory and suffix from filenames
bash GNU Bourne-Again SHell
bc Arbitrary precision calculator language
bg Send to background
break Exit from a loop
builtin Run a shell builtin
bzip2 Compress or decompress named file(s)

C

cal Display a calendar
case Conditionally perform a command
cat Concatenate and print (display) the content of files
cd Change Directory
cfdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux
chgrp Change group ownership
chmod Change access permissions
chown Change file owner and group
chroot Run a command with a different root directory
chkconfig System services (runlevel)
cksum Print CRC checksum and byte counts
clear Clear terminal screen
cmp Compare two files
comm Compare two sorted files line by line
command Run a command - ignoring shell functions
continue Resume the next iteration of a loop
cp Copy one or more files to another location
cron Daemon to execute scheduled commands
crontab Schedule a command to run at a later time
csplit Split a file into context-determined pieces
cut Divide a file into several parts

D

date Display or change the date & time
dc Desk Calculator
dd Convert and copy a file, write disk headers, boot records
ddrescue Data recovery tool
declare Declare variables and give them attributes
df Display free disk space
diff Display the differences between two files
diff3 Show differences among three files
dig DNS lookup
dir Briefly list directory contents
dircolors Colour setup for `ls'
dirname Convert a full pathname to just a path
dirs Display list of remembered directories
dmesg Print kernel & driver messages
du Estimate file space usage

E

echo Display message on screen
egrep Search file(s) for lines that match an extended expression
eject Eject removable media
enable Enable and disable builtin shell commands
env Environment variables
ethtool Ethernet card settings
eval Evaluate several commands/arguments
exec Execute a command
exit Exit the shell
expect Automate arbitrary applications accessed over a terminal
expand Convert tabs to spaces
export Set an environment variable
expr Evaluate expressions

F

false Do nothing, unsuccessfully
fdformat Low-level format a floppy disk
fdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux
fg Send job to foreground
fgrep Search file(s) for lines that match a fixed string
file Determine file type
find Search for files that meet a desired criteria
fmt Reformat paragraph text
fold Wrap text to fit a specified width.
for Expand words, and execute commands
format Format disks or tapes
free Display memory usage
fsck File system consistency check and repair
ftp File Transfer Protocol
function Define Function Macros
fuser Identify/kill the process that is accessing a file

G

gawk Find and Replace text within file(s)
getopts Parse positional parameters
grep Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern
groupadd Add a user security group
groupdel Delete a group
groupmod Modify a group
groups Print group names a user is in
gzip Compress or decompress named file(s)

H

hash Remember the full pathname of a name argument
head Output the first part of file(s)
help Display help for a built-in command
history Command History
hostname Print or set system name

I

iconv Convert the character set of a file
id Print user and group id's
if Conditionally perform a command
ifconfig Configure a network interface
ifdown Stop a network interface
ifup Start a network interface up
import Capture an X server screen and save the image to file
install Copy files and set attributes

J

jobs List active jobs
join Join lines on a common field

K

kill Stop a process from running
killall Kill processes by name

L

less Display output one screen at a time
let Perform arithmetic on shell variables
ln Create a symbolic link to a file
local Create variables
locate Find files
logname Print current login name
logout Exit a login shell
look Display lines beginning with a given string
lpc Line printer control program
lpr Off line print
lprint Print a file
lprintd Abort a print job
lprintq List the print queue
lprm Remove jobs from the print queue
ls List information about file(s)
lsof List open files

M

make Recompile a group of programs
man Help manual
mkdir Create new folder(s)
mkfifo Make FIFOs (named pipes)
mkisofs Create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem
mknod Make block or character special files
more Display output one screen at a time
mount Mount a file system
mtools Manipulate MS-DOS files
mtr Network diagnostics (traceroute/ping)
mv Move or rename files or directories
mmv Mass Move and rename (files)

N

netstat Networking information
nice Set the priority of a command or job
nl Number lines and write files
nohup Run a command immune to hangups
notify-send Send desktop notifications
nslookup Query Internet name servers interactively

O

open Open a file in its default application
op Operator access

P

passwd Modify a user password
paste Merge lines of files
pathchk Check file name portability
ping Test a network connection
pkill Stop processes from running
popd Restore the previous value of the current directory
pr Prepare files for printing
printcap Printer capability database
printenv Print environment variables
printf Format and print data
ps Process status
pushd Save and then change the current directory
pwd Print Working Directory

Q

quota Display disk usage and limits
quotacheck Scan a file system for disk usage
quotactl Set disk quotas

R

ram ram disk device
rcp Copy files between two machines
read Read a line from standard input
readarray Read from stdin into an array variable
readonly Mark variables/functions as readonly
reboot Reboot the system
rename Rename files
renice Alter priority of running processes
remsync Synchronize remote files via email
return Exit a shell function
rev Reverse lines of a file
rm Remove files
rmdir Remove folder(s)
rsync Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees)

S

screen Multiplex terminal, run remote shells via ssh
scp Secure copy (remote file copy)
sdiff Merge two files interactively
sed Stream Editor
select Accept keyboard input
seq Print numeric sequences
set Manipulate shell variables and functions
sftp Secure File Transfer Program
shift Shift positional parameters
shopt Shell Options
shutdown Shutdown or restart linux
sleep Delay for a specified time
slocate Find files
sort Sort text files
source Run commands from a file `.'
split Split a file into fixed-size pieces
ssh Secure Shell client (remote login program)
strace Trace system calls and signals
su Substitute user identity
sudo Execute a command as another user
sum Print a checksum for a file
suspend Suspend execution of this shell
symlink Make a new name for a file
sync Synchronize data on disk with memory

T

tail Output the last part of file
tar Tape ARchiver
tee Redirect output to multiple files
test Evaluate a conditional expression
time Measure Program running time
times User and system times
touch Change file timestamps
top List processes running on the system
traceroute Trace Route to Host
trap Run a command when a signal is set(bourne)
tr Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
true Do nothing, successfully
tsort Topological sort
tty Print filename of terminal on stdin
type Describe a command

U

ulimit Limit user resources
umask Users file creation mask
umount Unmount a device
unalias Remove an alias
uname Print system information
unexpand Convert spaces to tabs
uniq Uniquify files
units Convert units from one scale to another
unset Remove variable or function names
unshar Unpack shell archive scripts
until Execute commands (until error)
uptime Show uptime
useradd Create new user account
userdel Delete a user account
usermod Modify user account
users List users currently logged in
uuencode Encode a binary file
uudecode Decode a file created by uuencode

V

v Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b')
vdir Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b')
vi Text Editor
vmstat Report virtual memory statistics

W

wait Wait for a process to complete
watch Execute/display a program periodically
wc Print byte, word, and line counts
whereis Search the user's $path, man pages and source files for a program
which Search the user's $path for a program file
while Execute commands
who Print all usernames currently logged in
whoami Print the current user id and name (`id -un')
wget Retrieve web pages or files via HTTP, HTTPS or FTP
write Send a message to another user

X

xargs Execute utility, passing constructed argument list(s)
xdg-open Open a file or URL in the user's preferred application.

Y

yes Print a string until interrupted



Making Vim an Ideal Python IDE [Beginner's Guide]

Python is one of the most popular programming languages for learners. If you are a Linux user, 

If you are not a Linux user, you might want to read my article on Dual booting Linux and Windows.
 
you must have at some point of time used "Vi" The short for "Vim". It's a very powerful text editor. Here, In this article I'll be explaining how to make vim work like an IDE for you making your work-flow smooth.

I won't be explaining about how to split your vim window into four and so on which do come under smooth work-flow, but this article is only vim-python specific. 

As a beginner you won't be needing much of the plug-ins into vim.I'll be listing only the ones you'll need initially. 

So, first of all you need to have your vim version 7.4 or above. To check and update vim, you can use the following commands on the terminal emulator:
$ vim --version | less
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install vim
f
So, ensuring that you have a supported vim version, we are now going to install a vim plugin which we rather call an utility. It will help us Manage our 'runtimepath' with ease.  In practical terms, pathogen.vim makes it super easy to install plugins and runtime files in their own private directories. 

Installing pathogen

There are certain things that we need to do before we install pathogen, 

$ mkdir ~/.vim/
$ mkdir ~/.vim/autoload
$ mkdir ~/.vim/bundle
$ cd ~/.vim/
$ git init

If you haven't installed Git yet, you really want to install it. use sudo apt-get install git for that.  
Also you want to install pip.

$ sudo apt-get install python-pip

So, till now we were kind of setting up the environment for installing pathogen, and other stuff. 
Download the pathogen zip file from github here.

Now I'll suppose you've downloaded the zip file on your desktop, unzip it, there's a file pathogen.vim inside a folder called autoload. Copy that into ~/.vim/autoload that we created a while ago.

The purpose of the autoload directory is to automatically load the vim plugin Pathogen. But Rest of our plugins which will help us make vim a python IDE are going to the bundle directory.

Some of my favorite plugins are,
jedi-vim -   autocompletion library
pep8 -  helps me make sure my code is consistent
ack.vim - replacement for 99% of the uses of grep, shows result in a split window inside vim
Gundo.vim - A Vim plugin to visualize your Vim undo tree, Very helpful if you make mistakes while deleting stuffs.

To complete our environment for using vim plugins, we need to make a file .vimrc in our home directory. which vim will read each time it is called and further it will call pathogen in the autoload directory. the commands goes like this. (You have to create the .vimrc file if it does not already exists, '#' are comments, not commands) 
$ cd
$ touch .vimrc
#YOU CAN USE ANY EDITOR, HERE I'LL BE USING VIM ITSELF
$ vim .vimrc
#INSIDE THE .vimrc FILE YOU NEED TO PUT THESE LINES-->

execute pathogen#infect()
filetype off
filetype plugin indent on
set nocompatible
syntax on
set tabstop=2
set shiftwidth=2
set autoindent
set expandtab
set number
colorscheme darkblue
This is my .vimrc file, you might want to modify it according to your need. So, if you don't know how to do it, you might just want to copy these lines into your .vimrc file. Your configuration should look something like this:-
(Ignore the directories inside the bundle directory for now)

I am going to show how to install jedi-vim and surround, you can learn their usage and the installation of other plugins from their respective github pages which I'll listing in the end of this article.

Installing Jedi-vim

The recommended way to install jedi-vim is to use the pip command. First we'll install the python package for jedi-vim and then we'll install it for vim using pathogen. 
$ sudo pip install jedi
$ cd ~/.vim/bundle
$ git clone https://github.com/davidhalter/jedi-vim.git

Done! You can access auto completion by using "ctrl+space", read documentation for more info.

Now we'll go around and install a plugin called surround
$ cd ~/.vim
$ git submodule add https://github.com/tpope/vim-surround.git bundle/surround

Done, you have installed the surround plugin to vim, you can read it's documentation at github for it's usage. 
Similarly, here are some more,   

$ git submodule add http://github.com/tpope/vim-fugitive.git bundle/fugitive
$ git submodule add https://github.com/msanders/snipmate.vim.git bundle/snipmate
$ git submodule add https://github.com/tpope/vim-surround.git bundle/surround
$ git submodule add https://github.com/tpope/vim-git.git bundle/git
$ git submodule add https://github.com/ervandew/supertab.git bundle/supertab
$ git submodule add https://github.com/sontek/minibufexpl.vim.git bundle/minibufexpl
$ git submodule add https://github.com/wincent/Command-T.git bundle/command-t
$ git submodule add https://github.com/mitechie/pyflakes-pathogen.git
$ git submodule add https://github.com/mileszs/ack.vim.git bundle/ack
$ git submodule add https://github.com/sjl/gundo.vim.git bundle/gundo
$ git submodule add https://github.com/fs111/pydoc.vim.git bundle/pydoc
$ git submodule add https://github.com/vim-scripts/pep8.git bundle/pep8
$ git submodule add https://github.com/alfredodeza/pytest.vim.git bundle/py.test
$ git submodule add https://github.com/reinh/vim-makegreen bundle/makegreen
$ git submodule add https://github.com/vim-scripts/TaskList.vim.git bundle/tasklist
$ git submodule add https://github.com/vim-scripts/The-NERD-tree.git bundle/nerdtree
$ git submodule add https://github.com/sontek/rope-vim.git bundle/ropevim

Ref.: sontek.net and github

You are free to explore more plugins and add more into it, it's your own little powerpacked IDE that you configured yourself using vim for python. Thanks to the open-source community. If you have more you can post them in the comments, I'll be highly delighted to see your configuration. 

How to remove unwanted popups ads

It usually happens a lot time that whenever you browse/visit some website(s) you get an unwanted ad popup which is very annoying and it sometimes redirect you to some other site which have some unwanted or inappropriate content. Mainly malwares are responsible for such unwanted ads and popups.Most of the time when we download some cracked version of software or download things that we get in our emails (email ads) ,we unknowingly install these malwares which affects our computer. In this tutorial you will learn how to remove unwanted ads from Firefox, or how to remove unwanted ads from any browser.



Method 1 - Install a popup blocker called "Adblock Plus" :

From this method you will also get rid of banner/video ads from a website/YouTube
  1. Go to https://adblockplus.org/en/ 
  2. Install the plugin
  3. Done

Methods 2 - Clean up your browser with "CCleaner" :

This will clean the up the unwanted registry which is causing popups
  1. Go to https://www.piriform.com/ccleaner
  2. Download and install the softaware
  3. Open it and click on "Run Cleaner" button (It will automatically choose the best settings to clean your desire web browser)
  4. Done

Method 3 – Remove unwanted softwares

Removing unwanted toolbars/softwares that are causing popups :
  1. Go to the control panel
  2. Uninstall it

Complete guide to install Oxygen OS on OnePlus One



Its been a long time OnePLus users waiting for the new Lollipop based ROM for their smartphones. The wait is over as the popular Chinese smartphone maker OnePlus has finally released its own custom ROM -- OnePlus OxygenOS, which is based on Android 5.0 Lollipop and comes with lots of new features


In this guide we’ll show you how to Unlock the Bootloader, root and install the Oxygen OS on OnePlus one phone. You can’t receive the OTA update for the same, you will have to install it manually on your phone. This OS is the official update for OnePLus one users and not a third party custom ROM.

Before following this guide do take the full backup of you phone and save it in some safe place.

In order to install Oxygen Os on your smartphone you need to do the following :

  • Install One Plus One Adb Drivers For Windows
  • Unlock Bootloader One Plus one
  • Install TWRP on One Plus One
  • Root OnePlus One
  • OxygenOS Installation Instructions

Install One Plus One Adb Drivers For Windows

Step 1. Install the latest Samsung drivers: SAMSUNG USB Driver v1.5.33.0 (These are the universal USB driver and works fine on One Plus one)

Step 2. After the installation. Restart the computer.

Step 3. Go to Device Manager, find the Android device, and select Update Driver Software.

Step 4. From the next screen, Select Browse my computer for driver software.

Step 5. Select Let me pick from a list of device drivers on my computer.

Step 6. Select ADB Interface from the list. Select SAMSUNG Android ADB Interface (this is a signed driver). If you get a warning, select Yes to continue.

Unlock Bootloader One Plus one

Step 1. Download the ADB and fastboot file here and extract the folder on your desktop.

Step 2. Now turn the phone off. Then boot it into fastboot mode by holding volume up + power. The phone will display “fastboot” text indicating that it has successfully entered fastboot mode.

Step 3. Connect you phone to PC with USB cable.

Step 4. Now open a command prompt window on the ADB folder. Hold Shift button and Right click on the White space of the folder and click on “Open Command Window here”.

Step 5. Now enter the following command on the windows:

fastboot devices

This command will list the connected devices. If your phones serial number shows up you are good to go and may continue. If the phone is NOT listed this indicates that your drivers are not installed correctly.

Step 6. After this proceed to unlocking the bootloader with the following command:

fastboot oem unlock

Step 7. After the above command has finished executing, run the following

fastboot reboot

Now  wait for few minute to reboot the device. After that adjust the following settings on the phone:

USB Debugging - On your phone go to Settings > About phone > Tap on Build number 7 times. This will enable Developer options. Now go back to Settings > Developer options > Enable USB debugging
Disable CM Recovery Protection – On your phone go to Settings > Developer options. Then disable the ‘Update recovery with system updates’ option.

Close the command prompt windowin your computer.

Install TWRP on One Plus One


Step 1. Download the latest TWRP recovery here.

Step 2. Rename the recovery file that you downloaded above to recovery.img and move the img file into the ADB folder that your downloaded and extracted on your desktop.

Step 3. Turn the phone off. Then boot it into fastboot mode by holding volume up + power.

Step 4. Open a new command prompt and run the following commands:

fastboot flash recovery recovery.img

Step 5. Once the flash has completed type the following command to reboot the phone:

fastboot reboot

Now the phone will reboot and  TWRP is now installed on your phone. Now follow the next step to root your device.

Root OnePlus One


Step 1. Download the SuperSu zip file here and copy the file on your phone.

Step 2. Boot your phone in recovery mode. To do this hold volume down + power. Leave the phone at the main screen of the custom recovery for now.

Step 3. Now go to Install > browse to SuperSU zip and select it. Swipe to confirm the installation. Then reboot.

OxygenOS Installation Instructions

Step 1. One the TWRP recovery in installed on your device, Download the OxygenOS ROM zip file here and save it on your desktop.

Now extract the folder on your desktop and you will see two different files in the folder. Oxygen_1.0.0_Flashabdle.mdf and Oxygen_1.0.0_Flashabdle.zip. You need a zip file.

Step 2. After this connect you phone to the PC and Move the Oxygen_1.0.0_Flashabdle.zip file on your phone.

Step 3. After this turn off your phone and boot in recovery mode. TO do this Hold Volume down button + Power button.

Step 4. Now you phone will boot in recovery mode.

Step 5. Now after this select Wipe option and and delete Cache, Dalvik cache and data.

Step 6. Now go back and Select Install option and ‘choose zip from sd card’ from the Options.

Step 7. Select the OxygenOS zip file and confirm the installation on next screen.

After the flash succeeds, you can reboot the device, which will take you to the new OxygenOS.

Top websites to learn coding online



Gone are the days when a person needed to go to some computer institute, pay a huge amount of money as fee and learn coding. Thanks to internet today anyone can learn coding anywhere and that too for free. Today everyone holds the same potential, and the chance to learn and even master programming language easily.

So if you are ready to master programming language, here are the top websites which can help you achieve it.

JavaScript

 


HTML / CSS

 


Python

 



Ruby & Ruby on Rails

 



 Java

 


SQL (Databases)

 


Have you studied at any website we showcased above? How’s the experience? Or have we missed certain  learning sites with rich assets for budding programmers? Let us share our experiences and resources to help and inspire each other then!